Ashok leyland financial analysis

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Ashok leyland financial analysis

Streamlined conventional cab Cab beside engine The cab is an enclosed space where the driver is seated. A "sleeper" is a compartment attached to or integral with the cab where the driver can rest while not driving, sometimes seen in semi-trailer trucks.

There are several possible cab configurations: This design is almost ubiquitous in Europe, where overall truck lengths are strictly regulated, but also widely used in the rest of the world as well. They were common in North American heavy duty trucks, but lost prominence when permitted length was extended in the early s.

Nevertheless, this design is still popular in North America among medium and light duty trucks. To reach the engine, the whole cab tilts forward, earning this design the name of "tilt-cab".

This type of cab is especially suited to the delivery conditions in Europe where many roads follow the layout of much more ancient paths and trackways which require the additional turning capability given by the short wheelbase of the cab over engine type.

The driver is seated behind the engine, as in most passenger cars or pickup trucks. Many new cabs are very streamlinedwith a sloped hood and other features to lower drag.

Cab beside engine designs also exist, but are rather rare and are mainly used inside shipping yardsor other specialist uses that require the vehicle to carry long loads such as pipes, metal rods, flat iron and other construction materials.

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This type is often custom made from a regular cabover truck that gets the upper half of its cab removed on the passenger side and replaced by an extended section of the bed.

A further step from this is the side loading forklift that can be described as a specially fabricated vehicle with the same properties as a truck of this type, in addition to the ability to pick up its own load. Engine[ edit ] Cummins ISB 6.

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Most of the heavier trucks use four-stroke diesel engines with a turbocharger and intercooler. Huge off-highway trucks use locomotive-type engines such as a V12 Detroit Diesel two stroke engine. A large proportion of refuse trucks in the United States employ CNG compressed natural gas engines for their low fuel cost and reduced carbon emissions.

North American manufactured highway trucks often use an engine built by a third party, such as CaterpillarCumminsor Detroit Dieselbut both Mack and Navistar offer their own engines. Bigger trucks often use manual transmissions without synchronizers, saving bulk and weight, although synchromesh transmissions are used in larger trucks as well.

Transmissions without synchronizers, known as "crash boxes", require double-clutching for each shift, which can lead to repetitive motion injuriesor a technique known colloquially as "floating", a method of changing gears which doesn't use the clutch, except for starts and stops, due to the physical effort of double clutching, especially with non-power-assisted clutches, faster shifts, and less clutch wear.

Double-clutching allows the driver to control the engine and transmission revolutions to synchronize, so that a smooth shift can be made; for example, when upshifting, the accelerator pedal is released and the clutch pedal is depressed while the gear lever is moved into neutral, the clutch pedal is then released and quickly pushed down again while the gear lever is moved to the next higher gear.

Finally, the clutch pedal is released and the accelerator pedal pushed down to obtain required engine speed. Although this is a relatively fast movement, perhaps a second or so while transmission is in neutral, it allows the engine speed to drop and synchronize engine and transmission revolutions relative to the road speed.

Downshifting is performed in a similar fashion, except the engine speed is now required to increase while transmission is in neutral just the right amount in order to achieve the synchronization for a smooth, non-collision gear change. Automatic and semi-automatic transmissions for heavy trucks are becoming more and more common, due to advances both in transmission and engine power.

These frames are referred to as ladder frames due to their resemblance to a ladder if tipped on end. The rails consist of a tall vertical section two if boxed and two shorter horizontal flanges. The height of the vertical section provides opposition to vertical flex when weight is applied to the top of the frame beam resistance.

Though typically flat the whole length on heavy duty trucks, the rails may sometimes be tapered or arched for clearance around the engine or over the axles.

The holes in rails are used either for mounting vehicle components and running wires and hoses, or measuring and adjusting the orientation of the rails at the factory or repair shop. The frame is usually made of steelbut can be made whole or in part of aluminum for a lighter weight.

Ashok leyland financial analysis

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